Like all PopTech audiences, the crowd attending the upcoming event, "The City Resilient," will be filled with people of extraordinary talent and knowledge. As examples, PopTech asked a handful of these thought leaders to answer three questions about their work and their views on community resilience. Here is Deb Markowitz, Secretary, Vermont Agency of Natural Resources.
Please briefly describe your work and your typical working day.
I am the CEO of a large organization that operates all across the state of Vermont that is charged with protecting Vermont’s environment and enhancing Vermonter’s access to the outdoors.
We have three departments. The Department of Environmental Conservation runs our regulatory and permit programs that are designed to protect air quality, ensure clean water, oversee the state’s dams, manage Vermonters' solid waste and prevent and respond to hazardous waste spills. Through our Department of Fish and Wildlife we manage game and nongame species, focus on aquatic and terrestrial habitat management and protection, and encourage wildlife-based outdoor recreation opportunities. Through our Department of Forest Parks and Recreation we manage 51 state parks and hundreds of thousands of acres of state forest and we engage in important land conservation projects.
As Secretary, I spend a lot of my time focused on climate change mitigation and climate resilience. Through the governor’s Climate Cabinet (which I chair) we are addressing Vermont’s contribution to greenhouse gases by implementing investments and policies designed to move Vermont toward our state goal of reaching 90 percent renewables by 2050. We are leading a statewide discussion about the need for climate resilient strategies related to floods, ice storms and other climate-related disasters, and the vital role of our natural infrastructure (un-fragmented forests, flood plains, wetland, etc.) And, in partnership with our land conservation nonprofits we have begun an initiative to focus our land conservation investments on projects that will strengthen resilience to climate change.
How does your work relate to efforts to build resilient communities?
Climate change adaptation actions are adjustments in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic effects that moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. Particularly in a rural state like Vermont, the foundation of resilient communities is our natural infrastructure. It is therefore not surprising that many of the actions needed to build resilient communities are the same actions needed and already initiated to support the resilience of our ecosystems and to reduce various types of pollution in Vermont’s watersheds. For example, when we build bridges and culverts to withstand future flood events, it provides aquatic species passage and prevents streambed and bank erosion. When we conserve wetlands it protects water quality and riparian habitat, it also protects upstream communities from flooding by serving as a catch basin during extreme weather events. In addition to working to properly design our infrastructure so we are prepared for future extreme weather events, we are engaged in a robust statewide conversation about how to encourage infill growth in our built communities (which are almost all along our river corridors) while preserving the open spaces so that we can, where it is still possible, benefit from our natural infrastructure by reconnecting our rivers to their flood plains.
Please describe one key principle for building resilient communities.
Recognize the importance of the interconnected network of natural and undeveloped areas needed to provide a wide array of environmental, health and economic benefits. Not surprisingly, particularly in our urban areas, our natural infrastructure has been declining, both in quality and in quantity. Sprawl and poorly planned communities are at fault. As we rethink how we live on the land in light of the uncertainties of climate change, we need to be more strategic and intentional, using the best scientific information available to support long-term sustainability.
Like all PopTech audiences, the crowd attending the upcoming event, "The City Resilient," will be filled with people of extraordinary talent and knowledge. As examples, PopTech asked a handful of these thought leaders to answer three questions about their work and their views on community resilience. Here is John Crowley, Lead, Open Data for Resilience Partnerships at the World Bank/GFDRR.
Please briefly describe your work and your typical working day.
I connect grassroots and government via open data, open standards, and open technology. As curator of the TIDES "Camp Roberts" humanitarian technology accelerator for the US government and consultant to the World Bank's Open Data for Resilience Initiative, I am probably one of the few people who jump between each part of the disaster risk management cycle every day.
In the morning, I might interview a colleague in Kathmandu about efforts to teach the communities there how to map their city in OpenStreetMap so that they can catalogue their seismic risks. I might follow that with a conference call between a risk modeler and government donor about how to improve the collection of OpenStreetMap data to better calculate seismic damage and how to build these practices into global data standards.
In the afternoon, I might hold a conference call between FEMA, FEMACorps, and several companies about how to design a mash-up experiment at Camp Roberts where we accelerate damage assessment after an earthquake. One idea under review today fuses two ideas: how to use an unmanned aerial vehicle to image a neighborhood and provide real-time imagery to field teams; and how to bounce radio signals off the UAV to connect the field team's land-mobile radios with crisis mappers via Skype and upload field data collected back to the crisis mappers in near real-time.
In the evening, I'm probably in a coffee shop writing a policy memo about a way that the U.S. government could allow the fusion of mapping data from FEMA and crisis mappers into analytical products that can be used to accelerate the decisions about individualized assistance to families whose houses have been damaged (and figuring out how to get permission for the UAV to fly and/or make all the data open!). Or I might be writing a paper on the legal and policy challenges of connecting grassroots and government.
How does your work relate to efforts to build resilient communities?
Communities are becoming ever more interconnected. Mutual aid used to mean either an agreement to offer help across adjacent communities or a bilateral agreement for humanitarian aid between nation states. Today, it means were are a deeply intermingled global community, where citizens can help other citizens from across the planet using open platforms and open data.
I get to work on the problems that emerge when we move from old conceptions of mutual aid based mostly on sovereignties helping sovereignties to a set of decentralized informal networks working around and within these more formal networks. I get to work in partnerships to create mashups of organizations that solve big problems and then find ways to remove policy obstacles and let these open partnerships do their work. Put in systems thinking language, I reinforce the positive feedback loops of collaborative, creative do-ers and slow the negative feedback loop of those who create "policy drag."
Please describe one key principle for building resilient communities.
Listen. Too many efforts to build resilient communities start from an idea born in the comfort of a developed country which we then try to evangelize in a resource-scarce developing nation. Start from where people are. Listen to their problems. Mobilize tools and resources to build their solution in which they are full co-designers, while educating them about practices that would make their ideas better. We build resilient communities when the communities own their solutions and therefore already know how to maintain them. As a classically-trained cellist, I have to turn to the metaphor of being a chamber musician. You have to create a safe space where an innovative approach can arise from the friction between several people's ideas into a unique and creative synthesis. In the process, you'll each be pushed beyond your comfort zone into places where you will do things you did not realize were inside you.
Photo via John Crowley
Experienced researchers who have also carried out significant fieldwork sometimes produce particularly lucid presentations. Jennifer Leaning (PopTech 2012) has researched human security for years and has field experience in Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Kosovo, the Middle East, the former Soviet Union, Somalia, the Chad-Darfur border and the African Great Lakes.
Leaning studies Human security, which she says requires a minimum of three things: a sustainable sense of home; attachment to a community; and a positive sense of the future. These are the building blocks for rehabilitating people and families after they experience some of the world's worst nightmares. "I'm looking at the ways in which you can promote health and well-being through time in the setting of war and disaster," she explained to the Camden audience.
Leaning has spent considerable time researching the devastating impacts of forced migration in particular — people driven from their homes and communities by war or other disruptions. "Forced migration is a fundamental — fundamental — assault on human security," Leaning said about the 40 million people worldwide who have had to leave their communities because of one calamity or another. "And it creates enormous misery. And it is a major factor in state and regional instability throughout the world," she noted. "My question is, 'How do we get the rest of the world to recognize that a particular form of assault on human society is forced migration?"
The study of human security has also revealed some frequent characteristics of resilient individuals. Leaning's research suggests that particularly resilient people tend to exhibit a sense of self-worth; identify with a life story or trajectory; have a sense of humor; often had a prior experience bouncing back from trauma; exhibit the capacity to trust others as well as a willingness to forgive; and seem to share a conviction that life has meaning.
Knowing those tenets means that resilience can be cultivated. "Resilience is something that can be taught. It can be lost," Leaning said. "It can be recaptured. It can be re-nurtured."
But resilience is also different from survival skills and coping strategies. "I just want to submit here that not all survivors are resilient," she explained. "There are survivors who are beaten down and haunted. And many of the resilient people may not be in the survivor pool, because part of their notion of meaning is to save and protect, and they may have died."
Its troubling to consider how many people around the world lack the basic building blocks of human security.
On June 24 PopTech and the Rockefeller Foundation will convene at the Brooklyn Academy of Music a network of citizens, scientists, designers, innovators and leaders for a unique summit on urban resilience.
Hundreds of invited participants will consider questions at the core of urban adaptability in the face of increasing disruptions: How do we improve communities’ self-reliance? How can we invigorate social networks that cut across socioeconomic lines, improve infrastructure and leverage big data? How do culture and the arts and humanities fit in? What about the actions of government, the social sector and community members?
This gathering is designed to foster interactions with stakeholders engaged at the forefront of urban resilience. Share your work with this influential community, and take home powerful new insights from potential partners, allies and friends. We invite you to request an invitation.
(Photo by kevin dooley.)
While they are typically innocent bystanders, children are still susceptible to the disruption and trauma in the world. War, addiction, domestic violence and natural disasters are just a few examples of the tragedies visited on children's lives.
In some ways, children respond to disruption just like adults. Some children bounce back, adapt and return to a path of normal development. Others continue to suffer in various ways physically or psychologically, sometimes for the rest of their lives.
But some of the factors that contribute to resilience among children are unique. That's what Ann Masten (PopTech 2012) studies. "Humans have been fascinated with overcoming adversity for a very long time," she said in her Camden talk about her work. "We want to hear stories about people who overcome difficulties."
Her research suggests a series of factors affect a child's resilience: capable parenting; other close relationships; intelligence; self-control; motivation to succeed; self confidence; hope; good schools; supportive communities; and effective cultural practices.
Masten said that the degree of trauma a child experiences still has considerable impact on the chance of recovery. "Dose matters," she explained.
But those factors can help children show remarkable resilience in the wake of even severe disruptions. "The greatest danger in my view is not adversity itself," Masten said. "But the damage that can happen to these adaptive systems."
She added that the most important factor in a child's resilience is the least surprising of all. "The most powerful protective system for a human child is a loving, caring family."
Moran Cerf's career as a neuroscientist began at a computer keyboard. Years ago he was hacker. That unusual career arc actually makes sense once you understand what makes Cerf (PopTech 2012) tick.
When we turn on a computer, the limits of what we can do and see are dictated by device manufacturers, programmers and website developers. Most of us don't think much about the digital bubble we are in online.
But those digital confines frustrated Cerf — and piqued his curiosity. He wanted to explore what was happening on the other side of those seemingly arbitrary boundaries. He sought to pull back the curtain and see how it all works; see what is behind that online reality. (This adventurous spirit also led to Cerf's stint as a bank robber.)
Moran has now brought his brand of curiosity to his exploration of the human brain. "How often does it happen to us in life when things we are supposedly in control of are actually happening by themselves?" he asked the Camden audience.
People are not computers, however. You can't just open up people's skulls and try to figure out what is going on behind their thoughts and emotions. Or can you?
Cerf teamed up with a Los Angeles neurosurgeon who works with patients suffering severe brain problems. The neurosurgeon opens up the patients' skulls and inserts electrodes into their brains to help identify problem areas that require treatment or surgery. "He keeps those wires in their brain for a few days while they are sitting there, awake, looking at TV and talking to their families," Cerf explained.
This was Cerf's chance. After all, the patients already had their skulls opened up. He asked those patients if he, too, could monitor their brain activity using electrodes. "The patients are happy to participate and let me see how the brain functions from inside," he said. "So now I can look at the brain while they think and see how thoughts look."
Cerf is able to identify brain cells that respond to specific images. One brain cell, for example, might become active when a patient sees a digital image of Marilyn Monroe, while another lights up at an image of Homer Simpson. "What is interesting about these cells is that they don't just get active when you see something," he added. "They get active when you think about something."
This discovery has led to some remarkable experiments. Patients have been able to teach themselves to activate one cell and deactivate another to make one image appear and another disappear simply by concentrating on one or the other. The patients are actually manipulating images in the outside world using only their minds.
This raises some stunning possibilities. "If we can connect cells to a computer and move images, we can actually replace that with a robotic arm and help people who have lost the ability to move their hands," Cerf explains.
All of us may one day benefit from the kind of curiosity that once led Cerf to wonder more about what made computers tick. And banks.
Bad things are likely to happen to us in our lives. Very bad things. Traumatic things. Sadly, as much as we like to deny it, statistics prove this to be the case.
The way we will each respond and recover to those tragedies and setbacks, however, will differ dramatically. Some of us will sink into deep depression, even long-term dsyfunction. Some of us will skate through seemingly unscathed.
That strange phenomenon is what Dr. Sandro Galea (PopTech 2012) studies. He is an epidemiologist who examines why some people mentally bounce back after trauma while others continue to suffer, or even get worse. Among other things, his lab performed significant research into mental problems among witnesses to the 9-11 attacks.
In his 2012 PopTech talk, Galea started by shocking us out of denial. "It is ingrained in our minds that bad things happen to other people and sometimes they happen to good people," Galea said. The data Galea shared, however, shows that 9 out of 10 of us will suffer at least one traumatic event in our lifetime.
It gets worse: That frightening number seems likely to only go up. "The number of disasters in the world is increasing and it has been increasing for the past 30 years," he added.
Galea's research plumbs the sometimes-murky relationship between our genetic make up, how our parents behaved, and how the number of exposures to traumatic events can all interact. Those factors help determine how likely we are to seem resilient after disasters, or slip into serious mental problems like post-traumatic stress disorder.
He also explores the slippery nature of our memory when it comes to trauma. "These events happen," he said. "They are large events. We talk about them and then we forget about them, which is of course a problem if we are going to understand the consequences of bad stuff."
Galea's talk is part of a rich vein of PopTech content about recovering from mental trauma. For example, George Bonanno, (PopTech 2012) a psychology professor at Columbia University, also studies data that show how human beings cope with loss and extreme adversity. And Retired Army Brig. Gen. Loree Sutton, MD (PopTech 2012) and clinical trainer Laurie Leitch, Ph.D. (PopTech 2012) work on neurobiological approaches to social resilience. This line of inquiry seems likely to become more and more relevant with each passing year, as much as we like to deny it.
David Eagleman (PopTech 2012) is a pioneer exploring the last great frontier of the human brain. He is particularly interested in the unconscious brain, how it drives our morality and decision making, and how what we know about those processes informs our thinking about crime and punishment in America.
The complexity of the brain is dizzying. The human brain weighs only three pounds. But Eagleman notes that it contains tens of billions of neurons. Between those neurons are hundreds of trillions of connections. There are as many neuron connections in a cubic centimeter of brain tissue as there are stars in the Milky Way.
Many of us probably think about the brain as being us: our personality and thoughts. But in fact only a small fraction of those neurons are dedicated to our consciousness — the mind. The large majority of that vast network is actually dedicated to the work of the unconscious brain, which is completely invisible to us. The conscious mind, Eagleman says, is the "broom closet in the mansion of the brain."
Eagleman shared some vivid examples to show how the unconscious brain affects some of our most important life choices. "If your name is Dennis or Denise you are statistically more likely to become a dentist," Eagleman explained. And we are all statistically more likely to choose a spouse with a name that starts with the same letter as our own. That unconscious drive to like things that remind us of ourselves is called "implicit egotism." Other examples were more subtle, but still surprising. If you are holding a mug of hot coffee, for example, you will describe your relationship with your mother as closer than if you are holding an ice coffee.
But Eagleman also explored some more startling case studies, like how a brain tumor drove Charles Whitman in 1966 to climb to the top of the tower at the University of Texas in Austin and gun down more than a dozen people. Whitman, a previously sane man, knew something was the matter and in his suicide note requested a brain autopsy. Eagleman also showed how another brain tumor turned a man with a previously normal sexual appetite into a pedophile. "When the brain changes, you can change also," Eagleman said. "You are tied to your biology and there is no way you can escape that."
The growing body of knowledge about the power of the unconscious brain provokes some interesting philosophical questions about the human condition. "Are we free to choose how we act? Is the mind equal to the brain?" Eagleman asked. "What seems clear is that if free will exists, it is a small player in the system."
Eagleman is also interested in more practical matters, like how what we are learning about the brain can teach us about American crime and punishment. "Nowadays, when we are talking about morality and decision making, what we are really talking about is the neural basis of this," Eagleman said.
He established the Initiative on Neuroscience and Law at Baylor College of Medicine to bring together neuroscientists, judges and policy makers to wrestle with these difficult issues. The work there calls into question the current assumptions at the very heart of the U.S. justice and penal system. These assumptions include the belief that we fundamentally choose how we act, and that all brains are basically equal. "It is a very charitable assumption," Eagleman said. "But it is demonstrably false."
The implications of that are startling. "The problem with these assumptions is that it has led us to treat incarceration as a one-size-fits-all solution," Eagleman said. As a result, America has highest percentage of citizens behind bars in the world, and 30 percent of inmates have mental illness, making American prisons the country's "de facto mental health care system."
"This does not exculpate anybody," Eagleman said. "What this gives us instead is the capacity to do rational sentencing, to do customized rehabilitation, and to do realistic incentive structuring instead of imagining that everybody respons the same to the same sort of deterrent."
It used to be that in business, bigger was better. Large-scale production required vast resources and a large organization to back it up and make it run. "Over the last 150 years, the primary way to organize economic activity has been through a bureaucratic hierarchy," said Brad Burnham, (PopTech 2012) a managing partner at Union Square Ventures.
As a result, big companies amassed a lot of power. Record companies ruled music. Newspapers had huge control over information. Brick and mortar universities largely monopolized education. That's how it has been for decades.
The Internet changed all that. Mark Zuckerberg and Jack Dorsey didn't need much more than a laptop to launch Facebook and Twitter, which are now business behemoths. The power of their products comes from the network of individuals who use those social media tools. "Within that model, you can have a creator and a consumer collaborating together to create economic value," Burnham said.
Many large companies are threatened by that trend. They attempt to "slow the threat," as Burnham puts it. They sue the upstarts or exercise their significant influence to lobby for regulations to protect their turf. Think about the record industry's response to Napster, for example. While that kind of reaction is understandable, it creates an atmosphere that inevitably stifles some innovation that would otherwise blossom. Those innovations might help solve some of the world's most pressing challenges.
That's why Burnham is collaborating with Ari Jónsson, (PopTech 2012) rector of Reykjavik University, Iceland’s leading university in technology, business and law. They want to create a laboratory for Internet freedom and innovation in Iceland.
Why Iceland? Iceland is an independent democracy. The economy has grown mostly on the basis of natural resources like geothermal energy and fisheries. Industry based on information technology, however, is relatively new. "What that also means is that there is not a lot of regulation in the way in terms of information technology," Jónsson said.
In Iceland, universities, industries and political parties are coming together through the Internet Policy Institute. That group will be analyzing issues as diverse as intellectual property and cybersecurity in an effort to establish a Internet business ecosystem that fosters innovation. The idea is to create the ideal policy framework for innovation on the Internet. "We believe that it is one of a number of tools that are critically important to ensuring that the network and the economy that is crated on the Internet has an opportunity to solve these really, really difficult problems," Burnam said.
Rose Goslinga (PopTech 2011) runs Kilimo Salama, a revolutionary micro-insurance product available to farmers who work relatively small plots of land in Kenya and Rwanda. Traditional crop insurance typically requires farm visits to verify claims. But it is not economically viable for an insurer to visit the many small, far-fetched farms scattered across Kenya and Rwanda.
Kilimo Salama (which means "safe farming" in Swahili) uses weather stations to remotely monitor weather conditions, including damaging droughts and excess rain that sometimes wipe out a farmer's entire harvest. This means that farm visits are not necessary. Payments and crop production advice are distributed just as inexpensively through mobile phones.
Goslinga was a PopTech 2011 Social Innovation fellow. When she spoke at PopTech back then, her organization was insuring around 20,000 farmers in Africa.
Within the past several weeks, Kilimo Salama made a huge achievement: More than 100,000 farmers are now insured.
Congratulations to Rose Goslinga and Kilimo Salama on that exciting milestone for an important, impactful innovation.