2010 PopTech Science and Public Leadership fellow Sean Gourley is a mathematician who has spent the last seven years using math to understand war and insurgency. If that sounds strange (or completely fascinating; this is PopTech, after all), what’s even better is that the work he’s done on war has given him a tool set that allows him to understand a range of technological systems.
“Technology, like war, defines the world we live in,” Gourley said. “And, like war, we don’t understand it very well.”
Gourley recently set out on a quest to map the world’s technology using a mathematical framework. Technology companies are legion and effectively categorizing them presented a unique challenge. “Companies at the front of innovation, like 23andme which is part biotech, part social network, can’t really be put into buckets,” Gourley said. “The really interesting stuff is between the buckets.”
Gourley needed a mathematical equivalent of DNA mapping so he asked the obvious question: is there a technology genome? The first challenge was to define entities, collect as much information about those entities as possible, and then compare the companies against each other. The comparisons reveal similarities and differences until eventually singular characteristics – genes – emerge. To date, he has collected 20 million documents on 21,000 entities and discovered 28,000 tech genes. “Comparing two companies is interesting,” he said. “It becomes really interesting when it’s 2,000 companies.”
2010 Science Fellow Amishi Jha is a brain scientist who is working on ways to train brains to pay better attention. Jha says the brain has big problems: there is too much stuff crammed into them (limited capacity) and the brain is severely constrained in its ability to act on what’s out there.
Siddharta Mukherjee is a cancer researcher, a physician and the author of the upcoming book The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer. A Rhodes scholar who teaches and practices at Columbia University, Mukherjee is often asked why he wrote this particular book. He’s explanation begins with the story of a single patient of his who had an especially aggressive form of abdominal cancer. She had been undergoing various intense treatments and at one point told Mukherjee that she was willing to go on with the treatments, but asked him “What is it that I am fighting?” He didn’t have a good answer for her and nor were there any existing resources to refer her to. He wondered: how old is cancer? When did it begin? How did we get to this moment in time with cancer and where are we going?
Jad Abumradis the host and producer of WNYC’s Radiolab, a public radio series. He has a background in creative writing and music composition and has written music for film and produced documentaries for local and national public radio programs. He uses sound to explore ideas and share stories.
Abumrad began his presentation by sharing sounds of miscellaneous things failing — an Epson printer that made a fantastic but terrible noise, his wife’s toy ray gun that short circuited, and a CD of Mozart skipping. “If you’ve heard Radio Lab, you know I’m obsessed with things breaking down and sliding off the rails. I love the aesthetics of failure.”
Fusing sound with science, Abumrad described how a team of biologists discovered a way to watch genes make proteins. He then played a rhythmic, orderly sound of what he initially interpreted those genes might look like. But in fact, he explained, what those genes are actually doing sounds much more random and chaotic. What science has discovered is that we’re riddled with error.
Donald Ingber studies how the natural patterns that have often been dismissed as design flaws might transform the field of bioengineering.
Ingber is the founder and director of the Wyss Institute for Bioinspired Engineering at Harvard. He proposes applying the adaptive and competitive responses of living systems to the fields of engineering in a way that might bring revolutionary advances in engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic biology and computer science.
Ingber’s perspective is based, in part, on his discovery while in an art class in college, that cells are built more like tents than like balloons. This critical insight dramatically changed how he thought about living cells. Hey came to see that they structure themselves in much the same way that inventor Buckminster Fuller dubbed the “tensegrity.” This balance between tension and compression, which Fuller employed to construct his famed geodesic domes, reveals that the design of materials could be viewed as dynamic systems.
Ingber spoke at PopTech as part of an session titled “Noise in the System.” In Ingber’s case, this noise refers to the amount of variation, such as DNA mutations, that naturally occurs in nature. Conventional engineering views this kind of variation as a design flaw, Ingber says, and works to eliminate or minimize it. Nature, by contrast, make use of these slight variations to better respond to environmental shifts.
For the unitiated, it can be hard to tell when Reggie Watts is having you on.
A moment of awkward fumbling with mic cords and equipment goes on for too long until it becomes obvious that he’s having fun at your expense – you laugh even though you know he’s essentially mocking you for feeling sorry for him; a rich professorial English voice pontificates about meaningless topics, stringing together nonsensical phrases (“The last thing on our minds is the first thing we hate the most…” “As a race of androids, we…”) in an effort to sound as PopTech-like as possible. Later he flips the script, using street vernacular to talk about the conference like it was an urban event (“What is PopTech? You know what I’m saying..”), carrying on for almost too long until you realize he’s gone completely meta on you – NYC teenager meets philosphy grad student.
He fills in the spaces with a sophisticated (but still silly – “Got two kidneys and a pancreas/Keep your hands where they are…”) one-man beat box/hip hop set that uses a drum machine and keyboard to create looped sample madness. The subject matter seems inane but for those who can keep up, it’s deeper than it appears at first listen. He wants you to laugh but he also wants you to know he’s smart enough to play to the Camden Opera House crowd.
Endearing is a strange word to use for someone like Reggie, but it fits – nerd chic (if PopTech has a style, it’s as good a term as any) meets the kid at the back of the class. It’s easy to figure out why he’s a friend of the organization.
Throwing over the two-Wiimote approach that launched his YouTube career, Patrick Flanagan rocked a new Edward Scissorhands-like glove of sound Thursday. Replete with arcade buttons and springbok horns, the glove allows Flanagan to use all of the fingers on his right hand as well as regulating pitch, volume, and tempo through motion control as he works a massive percussion set without ever touching a drum.
How does it work? Everything starts of with two controllers one Wiimote and his new glove – that are attached to a laptop that is then attached to various robotic pads, sticks, belts, and shakers that make the magic happen on a large assortment of traditional percussion instruments.
Informed by the percussive style of Armando Borg, Flanagan has a deep appreciation for the essential imperfect humanity of music; but the engineer in him just wants to make his robots sound more human. Above all else, the evolution of Flanagan’s set up gives him a chance to stick it to YouTube critics who wonder why he doesn’t just learn how to play the drums. After listening to five bongos banging out staccato 1/32nds in overlapping patterns, it becomes obvious: only a robot can play that fast.
(Photos: Thatcher Hullerman Cook)
The 2010 PopTech Fellows have been in Camden all week getting training from PopTech Faculty, networking and learning from and about each other. To introduce the Class of 2010 Fellows and the good work they are all doing, Andrew Zolli ran a short video produced by Beth Cohen of PopTech.
Meet the PopTech Social Innovators class of 2010!
First of the SI Fellows to actually take the stage was Ben Lyon, who launched Frontline SMS:Credit in 2009. Lyon stated that he was there to talk about the cost of money: specifically the cost of credit. He asked the audience: How much do you pay every year to credit cards? The average person in a developed country pays on average 14-15%. In developing countries it’s significantly more: an average of 35% percent. Small retailers pay closer to 50-75% due to loss of wages, transportation costs and other factors. Additionally, a significant number of impoverished people have no access to financial institutions or assistance.
Co-author of Portfolios of the Poor: How the World’s Poor Live on $2 a Day, Daryl Collins is a senior associate at Bankable Frontier Associates where she’s focused on research around the demand-side dynamics of development finance.
“When you think about the poor, you need to understand how they’re managing money firsthand,” especially since 40% of the world’s population live on $2 per day. Collins continued that the general assumption is that the poor have very little financial life, but when she and her colleagues started to interview poor households in Bangledesh, India and South Africa, they saw something different.
Ned Breslin, CEO of Water for People, is a self-professed critic of most water and sanitation interventions worldwide — and has set out to challenge longheld assumptions about the role of foreign aid in these projects.
He doesn’t doubt their initial good intentions, but laments the enormous disconnect between these intentions and long-term change. Drilling a water well can save lives, but what happens after the development organization has gone away? “Is the water still flowing,” Breslin asks. Quite often, the answer is no.
“Sustainability is NOT measured by how many handpumps you install, how many beneficiaries you(r organization) can claim, or how many microfinance loans have been given out.” Africa, Asia, and South America, Breslin notes, are littered with broken technologies and infrastructures. “ The problem isn’t a lack of good ideas, Breslin says. “The reality is that the developing world is constantly hammered with ideas, but is the intervention happening, and is it happening over time?”
Instead, success needs to be measured where change actually occurs. “Success is if somebody turns on a handpump and water comes out,” Breslin says. To continue using the same development models if there’s no water flowing is replicating failure. In other words, according to Breslin, “You can’t NGO it, but instead sort out what happened in the past and get water flowing again.”
This fall, Water for People released a monitoring tool called FLOW, for Field Level Operations Watch. The tool relies on smartphones and global mapping technologies to provide networked information about the state of water and sanitation projects. (Click here for more on the details about how the project works.) The ability to track projects allows organizations and individuals to respond quickly as problems arise. Because this technology promises to provide a clear view of what’s working and what ‘s failing, as well as the ability to track results overtime, Breslin hopes that this tool will make it easier to inject accountability in water development projects.
He also hopes that this effort will pull water project out of the hands of NGOs and into the hands of the people who are most impacted by poor water conditions. And that doing so, will provide a voice to the voiceless.
Breslin’s paper on overhauling hydro-philanthropy can be downloaded here.
(Photo credit: Thatcher Hullerman Cook)
Kevin Starr has spent much of his adult life in the world’s most desperate places and his patience for the empty rhetoric of would-be do-gooders has worn thin.
“It’s really cool to be here and talk about philanthropy in the midst of all these people who actually do something,” he said by way of greeting the PopTech crowd Thursday morning.
As head of the Mulago Foundation and director of the Rainer Arnhold Fellows program, Starr is committed to finding the “best solutions to the biggest problems in the poorest places.” He told the crowd he had spent the last two decades figuring out the best ways to deliver change to those who need it most, and he was there to help PopTech’ers figure out “how to be better at it than those of us who get paid for it.”
Part Kirk, part Spock, the inaugural class of Science and Public Leadership Fellows stand ready to present their new and improved, more publicly engaged, selves to a waiting world.
The class itself is a testament to PopTech’s commitment to searching high and low for the best and brightest. From studying the way behavioral contagions spread through social networks to probing the link between Eastern meditation and cognitive neuroscience to creating data-driven networks for understanding modern warfare, these are thinkers at the cutting edge of research and discovery.
The mission was to put these emerging achievers in the same room with a diverse and distinguished group of mentors in an effort to build a corps of highly visible and socially engaged scientific leaders who embody science as an essential way of thinking, discovering, understanding and deciding.
Over the course of the conference, these Fellows will present their work and share their insights into the workings of Science Fellows program.
This program would not be possible without PopTech’s partners and supporters, including Microsoft Research, Intel, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, National Geographic, National Science Foundation, Rita Allen Foundation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and the New York Academy of Sciences.